Commercial cleaning is a broad term predominantly used by cleaning companies who earn an income by being contracted by individuals, businesses, or corporations to carry out cleaning jobs in a variety of premises. Cleaning companies can be found in virtually every town and city in the world, with a higher concentration in affluent regions. Typically these companies market their services via a professional sales force, advertising, word of mouth, or websites.

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If you are squeamish about electricity or don’t care about electricity you may want to skip this one.  But we’re going to talk about some things at are pretty neat, central to the world of electronics and downright cool if you’d like to stick around. Recent blogs have talked about resistors, capacitors and inductors which, …

The post Reactive Electronic Components and Phase Angle appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Just about everyone celebrates a holiday at this time of year.  I celebrate Christmas.  This year, my wife and I will be spending the first part of the holiday season break with our daughter, her husband and their son in Frisco, TX.   Then it’s on to Ellicott City, MD to visit our son, daughter-in-law and …

The post Happy Holidays! appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

The blog Ultrasonics – Ultrasonic Generators – Power Control discussed several ways in which the power delivery of ultrasonic generators can be varied.  One of the ways is by modulating the amplitude while another is through the use of time proportioning or duty cycle modulation.   There are other ways as well, but these are the …

The post Amplitude vs. Duty Cycle Modulation appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

The purpose of fuses is relatively easy to grasp. A fuse interrupts a circuit (turns off) if the current flow (amps) is more than expected or more than the circuit components including wires etc. can safely handle. High current is usually the result of a short circuit, the failure of a device connected to the …

The post A Fuse is a Fuse? – Not Quite! appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

My recent blog, Are Ultrasonic Power Ratings Real?, prompted a response from my friend and colleague William Puskas.  Some of you may know Bill as the “Father of Sweep” as he was the first to implement frequency sweeping technology in ultrasonic cleaning equipment decades ago.  He is also the author of a significant number of …

The post Comments on Ultrasonic Power appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Nearly anyone who has been involved in the procurement of an ultrasonic cleaning system has come head to head with watts of ultrasonic power issues.  Variations of an order of magnitude or more are common in ultrasonic watts ratings from competitors selling equipment of otherwise similar size and capacity.  Despite the discrepancies, I don’t believe anyone …

The post Are Ultrasonic Power Ratings Real? appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

“Millipore” testing is a popular way of quantifying part cleanliness today.  What is generally not known, however, is that it is far from an absolute standard and, in fact, can be very misleading even if “properly” applied.  Part of this may be due to the genesis and heritage of Millipore testing.  At its inception, Millipore …

The post Thoughts About Millipore Testing appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Watts of ultrasonic generator output power is one metric often used in the comparison of ultrasonic cleaning systems.  In a previous blog, I discussed the potential foibles of using watts of consumption as a measure of comparison as there is no standard for measuring the output of an ultrasonic generator.  But there are also other …

The post Are Ultrasonic Power Ratings In Watts Meaningful? appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

More is better in some cases but when it comes to chemistry in industrial cleaning, using too much is costly and could indicate process problems as well. Cost – First, there is the obvious cost of using more chemistry.  Most aqueous cleaning chemistries range in price from $15 to $40 per gallon but may exceed …

The post Too Much Soap! appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

I sometimes reflect the purpose of John’s Corner.  It’s really pretty simple – to help those who are interested in industrial cleaning to understand and make the best use of the existing industrial cleaning technology – but maybe it’s more. As most of you may know (it is no secret), I am a former employee …

The post The Purpose of This Blog appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Both capacitors and inductors are “reactive” components.  Unlike resistors, capacitors and inductors store electricity on a short term basis but in different ways.  For me, the capacitor is a little easier to understand so let’s start with it. For all practical purposes, capacitors consist of two pieces of conductive material (think aluminum foil) separated by …

The post Electronic Components – Capacitor appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

The purpose of a diode is to allow the flow of electrical current in only one direction.  The ability to control current flow is very useful in electronics applications.  Diodes have been around in one form or another for a long time.  In the days of vacuum tubes, a “diode” was a tube with a …

The post Electronic Components – Diode appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

The lowly resistor is probably the electronic component that is most familiar to most of us.  Its one and only purpose is to limit the number of electrons that flow through a circuit. The “poorly conductive material” used in the vast majority of resistors is a mixture of carbon with various other “stuff” to hold …

The post Electronic Components – Resistor appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Inductors and capacitors both provide short term storage of electrical energy but in different ways and with different goals.  A capacitor physically stores electrons and acts as a source of voltage.  An inductor stores electrical current in a magnetic field and acts as a source of current. Although not present in all inductors, a core …

The post Electronic Components – Inductor appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

In a previous blog, we talked about the effect that different waveforms have on RMS vs. Peak voltage.  Now we’re going to look at the ramifications of that when it comes to power consumption.  For purposes of discussion, we are going to use an old-fashioned light bulb with a filament – something that’s easier for most …

The post Power Variations Due to Alternating Current in a Light Bulb appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Over the years I have made tens if not hundreds of efforts to clarify the meaning of the term “power” as it applies to the capabilities of ultrasonic cleaning systems.  Despite these efforts, a functional means of rating the capability of ultrasonic cleaning systems is still undefined.  There are several conventions and declarations.  But in …

The post Watt? appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

The blog A Little About RMS introduced the concept RMS (Root Mean Squared) as a way of expressing the equivalent effect of alternating current vs. direct current electricity in the power consumed by a resistive load.  Now would be an excellent time to read that one again before going ahead with this one.  As part …

The post What a Difference a Wave(shape) Makes appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Successful ultrasonic cleaning processes utilize a combination of mechanical action provided by the formation and implosion of cavitation bubbles and  chemistry that dissolves and/or promotes the wetting and transfer of mechanical energy to dislodge the contaminants to be removed.  The interactions and effects of chemistry on the ultrasonic process obviously exist but are not well …

The post The Effect of Physical Chemical Properties on Ultrasonic Performance appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

If you work around ultrasonic cleaning tanks you have probably heard a tank “squeal.”  If you’ve never heard this, (1) consider yourself lucky and (2) be aware that a “squeal” is not the normal hissing sound associated with an operating ultrasonic tank but, rather, an extremely high amplitude sound at an audible frequency that can …

The post Ultrasonic Tank Squeal appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

The physical laws of liquids are a little complex yet a general understanding of them is important to understanding the mechanics of cleaning chemistry in the removal of both soluble and not-so-soluble contaminants from parts.  The general concept was discussed in the blog Chemistry – Solvent Characteristics. This blog will take things a bit further. Question …

The post Soluble or Not? appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

An earlier blog discussed the mechanics of ultrasonic removal of soluble contaminants.  In many cases, however, it is not the soluble contaminants but, rather, particles that are the primary target of ultrasonic cleaning.  Particles of concern range from a fraction of a micron to several hundreds of microns in size.  Something larger than a BB …

The post The Benefit of Ultrasonic Cavitation and Implosion in Cleaning to Remove Particles appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

With the availability of ultrasonic cleaning equipment operating at frequencies from 20kHz up to over 250kHz and the capability to use more than one frequency in a single piece of ultrasonic cleaning equipment, users inevitably and rightly question the optimum frequency or frequencies for their cleaning applications.  The popular and most touted notion is that …

The post Particle Size Removal vs. Ultrasonic Frequency appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Note – Before we start, there is a nomenclature conundrum when it comes to the term “ultrasonic transducer.”  Through convention, transducer elements, the individual devices that produce ultrasonic vibrations (much like an individual radio speaker), are commonly called “transducers.”  A number of transducer elements working in parallel constitute a transducer array but may be called …

The post Pros and Cons of Tank Bonded vs. Immersible Ultrasonic Transducers appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Ultrasonic cavitation and implosion provide a unique benefit in cleaning unmatched by other means.  So much so that ultrasonic cleaning is often used as a benchmark to judge the effectiveness of other cleaning techniques. The major factors in cleaning are Time, Temperature, Chemistry and Mechanical Effect or Motion (TTCM).  There are other acronyms for these …

The post The Benefit of Ultrasonic Cavitation and Implosion in Cleaning to Remove Soluble Contaminants appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

After God knows how many years of looking at that one image of a cavitation bubble presented endlessly with different color variations etc. to “freshen it up” there has emerged some exciting new footage of actual cavitation bubble implosion!  Now, as a start, I don’t think these bubbles, at least the first ones, are the …

The post Cavitation Bubble Implosion Video! appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

In 2010, a patent was issued to Kaijo Corporation (US 7,726,325) for a method to efficiently and rapidly “degas” liquids.  In short, the process involves passing a liquid through a restriction such as the narrowing of a pipe at a sufficient velocity that rarefication downstream from the restriction (ala Bernoulli’s principle) creates negative pressure to draw …

The post The Case for Micro-Bubbles in Cavitation Enhancement appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

A preceding blog discussed the possible effect of too many available sites for the formation of cavitation bubbles to the point that there isn’t enough energy available to grow a significant enough portion of them to sufficient size to implode.  This leads to the question that the reverse may be possible as well.  In short, …

The post Cavitation in De-Ionized Water appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

This discussion is a bit anecdotal in nature because my attempts to demonstrate the effects I describe in the following in the laboratory have been less than conclusive.  But, the fact that I have seen them occur on several occasions over a period of more than 50 years gives it a degree of credence.  By this time the …

The post Too Many Particles May Impede Ultrasonic Cleaning appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Preceding blogs have discussed the inappropriateness of using units of measure such as watts per gallon in describing the power and possible overall effectiveness of an ultrasonic cleaning system.  It is all about energy, but only the energy that results in cavitation bubbles that catastrophically implode really counts!  Before I go further, it will be helpful for …

The post Ultrasonics – It’s All About Implosion appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

I have talked about cavitation extensively in previous blogs.  But what I have neglected to address through an omission on my part is the fact that all cavitation does not produce the effect needed to enhance cleaning – namely, the catastrophic collapse of the cavitation bubble in implosion.  Before reading further, please take a minute …

The post Stable vs. Transient Cavitation appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.

Clean rooms are an integral and necessary part of many manufacturing operations.  The goal of a clean room is to provide an environment without airborne contaminants including common dust, aerosols, particles and other contaminants that are suspended in the air everywhere around us.  Although we are relatively unaware of these contaminants in our everyday lives, most …

The post What Is A Clean Room All About? appeared first on CTG Technical Blog.